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【科普】嵌入式系统常用词汇统计表

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  • 2018-7-20 11:31:46
本文介绍嵌入式系统常用词汇。一天一个字母
大家一起眼熟起来
A
ASIC(专用集成电路)
Application-Specific Integrated Circuit. A piece of custom-designed hardware in a chip.
专用集成电路。一个在一个芯片上定制设计的硬件。
address bus (地址总线)
A set of electrical lines connected to the processor and all of the peripherals withwhich itcommunicates. The address bus is used by the processor to select aspecific memory location or register within a particular peripheral. If the address bus contains n electrical lines, the processor can uniquely address up to 2^n such locations.
一个连接处理器与所有外设的,用来通讯的电子线路集。地址总线被处理器用来选择在特定外设中的存储器地址或寄存器。如果地址总线有n条电子线路,处理器能唯一寻址高达2^n的地址空间。
application software(应用软件)
Describes software modules specific to a particular embedded project. Theapplication software is unlikely to be reusable across embedded platforms, simplybecause each embedded system has a different application.
用来描述一个特定的嵌入式项目中的某一软件模块。应用软件不象可重用的交叉嵌入式平台,只是因为每一个嵌入式系统有不同的应用软件。
assembler(汇编编译器)
A software development tool that translates human-readable assembly languageprograms into machine-language instructions that the processor can understandand execute.
一个能把人可读的汇编语言程序转换到处理器可理解和运行的机器指令的软件开发工具。
assembly language(汇编语言)
A human-readable form of a processor"s instruction set. Most processor-specific functions must be written in assembly language.
一种人可读的处理器指令集的形式。大多数处理器相关的功能必须用汇编语言编写。

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CISC(复杂指令集计算机)
Complex Instruction Set Computer. Describes the architecture of a processor family. CISC processors generally feature variable-length instructions, multiple addressing formats, and contain only a small number of general-purpose registers. Intel"s 80x86 family is the quintessential example of CISC. Contrast with RISC.
复杂指令集计算机。对一种处理器架构的描述。CISC处理器一般产生变长的指令,多种地址格式,并且仅仅有少量的通用寄存器。Intel的80x86家族是是典型的CISC处理器。相对于RISC而言。
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CPU(中央处理器)
Central Processing Unit. The part of a processor that executes instructions.
中央处理器。处理器中执行指令的那一部分。
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counting semaphore(计数信号)
A type of semaphore that is used to track multiple resources of the same type. An attempt to take a counting semaphore is blocked only if all of the available resources are in use. Contrast with binary semaphore.
一种用来跟踪多个相同类型资源的信号灯。仅仅在所有可用的资源都被用完了时才阻塞。相对二元信号而言。
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DMA(直接内存访问)
Direct Memory Access. A technique for transferring data directly between two peripherals (usually memory and an I/O device) with only minimal intervention by the processor. DMA transfers are managed by a third peripheral called a DMA controller.
直接内存访问。一种直接在两个外设(通常是内存和I/O设备)之间进行数据传输的技术,它只要处理器最少的介入。DMA传输由叫DMA控制器的第三方外设进行管理。
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debug monitor(除错监视程序)
A piece of embedded software that has been designed specifically for use as a debugging tool. It usually resides in ROM and communicates with a debugger via a serial port or network connection. The debug monitor provides a set of primitive commands to view and modify memory locations and registers, create and remove breakpoints, and execute your program. The debugger combines these primitives to fulfill higher-level requests like program download and single-step.
嵌入式软件被特殊设计来作为除错工具的一部分。它一般被放在ROM中,通过串口或网络与除错器进行通讯。除错监视程序提供一个简单的命令集来显示和内存地址和寄存器、建立和移除断点,并且运行你的程序。除错监视器组合这些简单的命令去实现象程序下载各单步调试等高端的请求。
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EEPROM(电可擦的,可编程的只读存储器)
Electrically Erasable, Programmable Read-Only Memory. (Pronounced"Double-E"-PROM.) A type of ROM that can be erased electronically.
电可擦的,可编程的只读存储器。一种ROM能被电擦除。
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embedded system(嵌入式系统)
A combination of computer hardware and software, and perhaps additional mechanical or other parts, designed to perform a dedicated function. In some cases, embedded systems are part of a larger system or product, as is the case of an anti-lock braking system in a car. Contrast with general-purpose computer.
计算机硬件和软件的结合体,或许还加上机械等其他部分,被设计来完成专门的功能。在一些情况下,嵌入式系统是一个大的系统或产品的一部分,就象汽车上的防抱死装置。与通用计算机相对。
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flash memory (闪存)
A RAM-ROM hybrid that can be erased and rewritten under software control. Such devices are divided into blocks, called sectors, that are individually-erasable. Flash memory is common in systems that require nonvolatile data storage at very low cost. In some cases, a large fash memory may even be used instead of a disk-drive.
一种RAM-ROM的混血儿,它能在软件的控制下被擦除和重写。一些设备被分成叫段组的块,能个别地可擦。闪存用在需要很便宜的非易失数据存贮器的地方,一个大容量的闪存甚至被用作磁盘驱动器。
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general-purpose computer(通用计算机)
A combination of computer hardware and software that serves as a
general-purpose computing platform. For example, a personal computer. Contrast with embedded system.
当作通用计算平台的计算机硬件与软件的组合。例如,PC。相对于嵌入式计算机。
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Interrupt(中断)
An asynchronous electrical signal from a peripheral to the processor. When the peripheral asserts this signal, we say that an interrupt occurs. When an interrupt occurs, the current state of the processor is saved and an interrupt service routine is executed. When the interrupt service routine exits, control of the processor is returned to whatever part of the software was previously running.
一个从外设到处理器的异步电信号。当外设发出这个信号,我们说一个中断发生。当一个中断发生,当前的处理器状态被保存并且中断服务程序开始运行。当中断服务程序退出,对处理器的控制权转到先前运行的那个软件上。
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interrupt vector table(中断向量表)
A table containing interrupt vectors and indexed by interrupt type. This table contains the processor"s mapping between interrupts and interrupt service routines and must be initialized by the programmer.
一个表格,包含由中断类型决定的中断向量和索引。这个表格包含中断与中断服务程序之间的处理器的映射,必须由程序员进行初始化。
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Locator(定位程序)
A software development tool that assigns physical addresses to the relocatable program produced by the linker. This is the last step in the preparation of software for execution by an embedded system and the resulting file is called an executable. In some cases, the locator"s function may be hidden within the linker.
一种分配物理地址给连接程序处理过的可重定位程序的软件开发工具。这是准备一个软件在嵌入式系统中运行的最后一步,并且结果文件叫做可执行的。在一些情况下,定位程序功能隐藏在连接程序中。
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memory map(内存映射)
A table or diagram containing the name and address range of each peripheral addressable by the processor within the memory space. Memory maps are a helpful aid in getting to know the target.
一个在内存空间中的,包含每个外设的名字和可由处理器设置的地址范围的表格或图表。内存映射有助于了解目标机情况。
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